Somaliland got its independence from British government in 26 June 1960 as result Somaliland government recognized as an independent state by international community. Somaliland was an independence state in five days. Somaliland was a British protectorate for 86 years. I would like the review the following article the Somaliland history since the independence.
Prehistory and introduction
In 17-02-1960 general election was held in Somaliland. The SNL, NUF and USP were the only major political parties. SNL has won the election. The SNL and USP formed a coalition and send a delegation to England to discuss the independence of Somaliland. The delegation lead by formed Somaliland president Mohamed H. Ibrahim Egal. The Somaliland delegation and British authority met in 02 May 1960. The meeting was closed in 12-05-1960 and the British authority has agreed to give Somaliland a full independence.
The Southern Somali People are responsible dividing Somalia unity
The history tells the truth, the idea of great Somalia was British policy after the Second World War. Great Britain took in 1943 over the Italian administration in South Somalia. British government attempted to create great Somalia including NFD, Djibouti, British Somaliland, and South Somalia. But the southern Somalis rejected it, they want that Italy to be back. The Southern has divided Somalia and denied greater Somalia They chose in 1949 to become trusteeship under the Italian authority. British government became angry about that issue and gave reserve Area to Ethiopia, and later NFD under Kenyian Government.
British government lobbied to get support from Somaliland people and its political leaders. Many leaders were supporting the British purpose related greater Somalia. You could obtained that if you observe the political agenda of the Somaliland parties which most of them established after the Second World War between 1945-1960.
The question is:
1. Who want the unity of great Somalia? Somalilanders
Who divided the unity of greater Somalia and caused to make the Somalian dream untrue? The People from South Somalia( Italian Somaliland), Ogaden people, and Djiboutian People.
Who are the victims? Somaliland and NFD people, NFD people chose in their referendum to join the Greater Somalia before their independence in 1963, but their vote was not accounted and their voice or aim was not listened to.
The greater Somali authority had not taken any major action, to help those people. The result of Somaliland joined to Somalia we have enough experience. It lead one of the most worst genocide in the African history. There was no unification but Somaliland was occupied by South Somalia more than 30 years.
The Somaliland independence in 1960 was not right thing in the right time.
Somaliland united with South Somalia 1 July 1960 and they formed (Somali Republic). Somaliland was united with South Somalia unconditionally. South Somalia had 10 years experience for governing internally, because they have autonomy under the Italian trusteeship.
Many Somalilanders intellectuals thought British government had not given Somalilanders the right thing in the right time for the independence. Somaliland people had no enough experience how to govern themselves. Most of higher educated people and intellectuals whom were in NUF political party were against the independence at that time. Their argument was the Somaliland people were not ripe to govern themselves. They wanted that United kingdom should give them an autonomy � self rules� a 10 years period. The people would gain enough experience to learn how they govern themselves. That is why inexperienced Somaliland politicians decided to unite with South Somalia with out consulting with their civilians. They united with South Somalia regardless without the interest of their own people.
British government did not involve in Somalia policy from the day of the independence 26 June 1960, while the Italian had played a major role as new colonisation. the Somalilanders where not also welcome by the Italians because they did not speak Italian language and they follow a British system.
South Somalia regarded Somaliland politicians as a threat because they were mostly higher educated people than Southern politicians. The Somaliland people became quickly discriminated by South Somalia. They lost their rights; they were handled as second range civilians. The constitution which defined the unity of Somali republic was overwhelmingly rejected by the Somaliland people in 1961. The constitution of Great Somalia has never being signed by the representatives of both nations. Most of Somaliland people believed there was no legal unity. Since that Somaliland was occupied illegally by South Somalia.
The South Somalia government did not supported formed British Somaliland, during this 30 years occupation, they did not build any public building or infrastructure exempt the only road from Mogadishu to Burao( main road connected South and North regions). They build that road for their own interest (access to the Northers side of the country). The Somalilanders became neglected and humiliated by the south Somalia and felt that they left behind. South Somalia did not build any hospitals, schools or colleges in Somaliland territory. Even they did not receive any development aid from the rich countries. All international aid had been allocated to South Somalia.
In December 1961 Somaliland people tried to conduct bloodless coupe. But unfortunately the coupe was in failure, Somaliland became dominated by South Somalia. Even thought the coupe leaders were released from the Jail, because the former Somali government could not charge them in any case in connection with the crime they committed. As result there was no legal binding unity for the two states. Somaliland citizens had rejected the referendum of unity with absolute majority in the late 1961. There was no proof and official document of reunification of the two nations.
The Barre coupe in October 1969
The situation has been deteriorated when the military made a coupe on 1969. The ex dictator president Mohamed Siyad Barre became the power. He declared himself as a president. It seemed the Somaliland people threaten his post. Because they are mostly wealthy and educated people. Besides they where under British colony. The president was pro Italian.
Somaliland people were against the dictator and founded a liberation movement so called the Somali National Movement in April 1981 to liberate their people and their soul.
The dictator government who was ruling the country reacted very cruelly made an order to kill and illuminate all the civilians ifrom northern part of Somalia. He arrested the Somaliland politicians and he ordered to rape the women and destroy the infrastructure and to loot their properties.
In 1988 there was a big battle between the government and SNM soldiers. The SNM took over controlling the most northern regions of Somalia ( current Somaliland) from Barre regime.
The government made revenge over the civilians. They killed the innocent people, they destroyed their homes, took all their properties. More than halve million people fled and crossed the border to the neighbouring countries, the rest where refugees in their regions. Nearly 100,000 people were killed, while thousands of others has been injured most of them innocent civilians including women , children, elderly people, disabled, psychiatric patients.
Unfortunately those people did not got any assistant from the international community. North Somalia was also closed from the rest of the world. The ex-dictators government did not allow the northern region any international media or foreign journalists to cover what was happen in North Somalia..
Somaliland desired always to reclaim their sovereignty, but did not get a chance before January 1991, when Siyad Barre lost the control of the power. Somali National Movement worked hard in beginning to settle a peace to insure the security and stability of the country, they contacted and gathered the clans elders , Sultans, intellectuals, clan leaders and spiritual leaders. The Somaliland society divided by formed dictator government reunited again. SNM had succeeded to bring the clans jointly to maintain the peace and determine themselves.
Somaliland reclaimed its self as independent State:
On Buroa Conference on 18 may 1991, the clan elders and political representatives decided unanimously to reclaim their sovereignty from Somalia whom unwillingly dominated Somaliland for 30 years. The people celebrated again they got their freedom from their neighboured country �Somalia�. The people of Somaliland started to rebuild their country started from the scratch. Everything was destroyed during the civil war.
Somaliland did not receive any aid from international community even 1993 when the United nations made intervention in South Somalia the so called operation restore hope. The reason is clear because the international community put pressure on Somaliland in order to reunite with South Somalia.
The current situation in Somaliland
The Somalilanders are hard workers, they have democratic elected government, which accomplish all de required sovereignty of the State. They have their own flag, own currency, the upper house, the parliament, the cabinet, the independence justice system. All the government departments are functioning well .There is also freedom of speech, multi party election system and safe power transfer.
The last presidential election in Somaliland took place on 13th November 2018. Three national Parties participated in the election. The presidential candidate of Kulmiye Party Mr Muse Behi Abdi won with 305, 909 votes the and secured 55% of vote of cast, while Waddani presidential candidate, Abdirahman Mohamed Abdullahi, placed second with 226, 092 votes (40.73%). UCID presidential candidate, Faisal Ali Waraabe, placed third with 23, 141 votes (4.17%).
Somaliland worked hardly to rebuild their country, but there are limitations as they have difficulty to access international financial intuitions like IMF and World bank and world trade organizations. They are also feeling neglected and isolated from international communities because of their political views.
The first time in history that Somaliland territory has its own universities. The first university built in Somaliland situated in Borame and second university is in the Capital city of Hargeisa.. Somaliland has more than 20 universities throughout the country Somaliland government rebuild also most of Schools and other .
Somaliland rebuilt also the hospitals, Air ports, the Sea ports in the big cities. The people are working hard to recover their necessities with many lacking.
There is many local relief workers mostly women initiatives, who tried to rebuild their land with their ability, capacities and properties. The women and the children are mostly victims of civil war. They want to prevent war and seeking possible solutions for the conflicts.
International community ignored to grant Somaliland international recognition. Somaliland citizens specially women and children are the most victims
I think it is not the right solution to destroy Somaliland government in order to build the Federal State of Somalia.
New greater Somalia Government is a threat for all
The forming of a new Greater Somalia government, will be threat to destabilization of the horn of Africa countries. Somalia Federal constitution does not recognise the borders with the neighbouring countries among them Ethiopia and Kenya. Somalia claims East Ethiopian region ( so called ogadenia or Kilkilka 5naad in Ethiopia). Somalia claims also northern region of Kenya( so called NFD). The Somali Federal constitution does not recognise also Djibouti government and Somaliland republic. The formed Greater Somalia has attacked the neighbouring countries twice to regain their disputed land in 1964 and 1977 against Ethiopia and intimidated Kenia to liberate North Provinces where Somali ethnic original reside.
The great Somali central goverment attempted also to attack Kenya when they got their independence in 1963. Great Somalia supported also the Somali-Kenyan rebels which struggled and made guerrilla war against Kenya to rejoin Greater Somalia between1963-1967.
Somali Federal government instructed the international community to cease the so called special arrangement deal which offer direct financial support to Somaliland. Somaliland managed peace and stability and required development aid while there is in Somalia security challenges attacked constantly by terrorist groups and other militia groups. Somalia needs humanitarian aid.
Somaliland and Somalia are two separate countries and will never reunite again. The international community should not being choosing one side of this dispute between Somaliland and Somalia. They can play as a mediation role.
International community to consider granting international recognition to Somaliland goverment and the special arrange deal to be ongoing continued.
The Somali community and political leaders are also concerned over the issue and they expressed their worries about the new Somalia administration and surrounded circumstances which they need all financial support to go through the Federal goverment. International community accused that the Federal government failed to establish transparent and accountability financial institutions and are managed very corrupted system. The international blamed the federal government to support financially and provided weapon and military equipment to the terrorist groups operated in their territory.
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Abdi Abdillahi Hassan,