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Published On: Tue, May 27th, 2014

Somaliland Political Development- 2001/14

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somaliland-flagBy Mohamed Mahmoud Muse

1.     Introduction:

Somaliland comes into view as an autonomous state in this very problematic region after it unilaterally declared its independence from the other part of Somalia. Since the past 23rd years, Somaliland had shown and demonstrate desirable manage of peace and stability after continues clan conferences that led to establish a relatively realistic constitution that encourage more on the reconstruction of the state and in logical manner. Somaliland also seems by the rest of the world the recoil solidity according to the hectic other Somali regional context where otherwise the world community still held without recognition as statehood.

Somaliland become in the international political system in the instant and subsequent to its independent   from the other part of Somalia in 18 May 1991 during Burao conference by composed leaders of SNM and other clan representatives. The established state of Somaliland has borders with Gulf of Aden to the north, Djibouti to the North West, and Ethiopia to the south west, to the east for Puntland autonomous state of Somalia and south east for rest of Somalia.

Somaliland has a population of 3.5 million with an average growth rate of 3.1%. 55% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic, with 45% living in urban areas or rural towns according to source from http://www.unpo.org/members/7916#sthash.0OjthQRl.dpuf.

People in Somaliland shares common language, culture, norms, and religion where are similar with other rest of Somalis – Puntland, south central, and Somali region of Ethiopia.

Apart from the 23rd old government, Somaliland has made tremendous effort to institute ties with other neighbouring regions including inter-governmental organization – the IGAD, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya, South Sudan, and Uganda where on the other hand they have poor unpleasant with Puntland autonomous of Somalia and other parts which the world thought that was could help Somaliland to enjoy peace and stable security that exist the areas that it controls.

Recently talk between Somaliland and Somalia signals that Somaliland had made courageous step toward political development not reconciliation between Somaliland and rest of Somalia where Somaliland continues concern more and more about to admit recognition from the international community where it considerably made progress although much needs to achieve while rest remains volatile due to ongoing armed conflicts and repeated instability followed by terrorized situations.

2.     Problem statement:

Increased demands of international recognition that Somaliland have been moved up in recent decade. A lot of reports and history about Somaliland recognition and its potential political development in world arena have been improved although several reflections without support still there.

3.     Aims:

The primary aim of this research is to;

·         Understand the status of Somaliland political development in national and international level.

·         Facilitate to produce better knowledge that draw intention to Somaliland political development which built better facts that every somalialnders is to understand the important of this political development.

 

4.     The scope of the study:

The fieldwork will be focused on the experienced academicians, government officials that would deliver details concerning Somaliland political development in national and international political level since the independent.

5.     Literature Review:

After the declaration of self-determination in May 1991, the people of Somaliland have wanted to build a new country in a planned path to a competitive and democratic political system. Setting up a democratic government that had been an endeavour by Somali National Movement (SNM) after critical combat with Siyad Barre government from 1980s and first Somaliland government in 1991 was performed followed with the constitution that prepared the country for elections within two years. It took a further ten years for a constitution to be drafted and approved by a people in 2001. Since 2002, however, all of Somaliland’s key political institutions, district councils, presidential and Parliament itself have been subjected to popular vote. The successful staging of multiple elections since 2002 is not only noteworthy Somaliland people in their endeavours to establish a democratic state, but also has important implications for political will that in the future come into view from the remains of Somali state, and for the region in general. The introduction of universal scratch temper and the formation of political parties that are not based on clans mark a significant to make effort to move away from association based politics. The first election of district councils facilitated to combine Somaliland as a territorially defined political entity, with all the regions within its borders having elected representatives in government. The election of a parliament in 2005 recognized potential representatives and responsible politics and a more impartial balance of political authority. The next round of democratic election of district council and the presidential became difficult to realise. When presidential elections scheduled for April 2008 were repeatedly postponed, due to a problematic voter registration process, and incompetent National Identification.[i]  Reviewing the past and notwithstanding internal wars in 1992 and 1994-96, Somaliland has also been one of the most peaceful places in the Horn of Africa. A lengthy self-financed process of clan reconciliation in the early 1990s led to a power-sharing government. This has provided an important base for Somaliland’s enduring political stability and its reconstruction and development. Despite successes, state building in Somaliland suffered both challenges and conflict in its past history.  Two civil wars in the 1990s derailed the rebuilding process and almost shattered Somaliland’s territorial unity. And ironically the strengthening of the central government has also had some destabilized effects. For instance the beel political system was increasingly usurped by the executive, threatening to derail its ability to provide legitimacy and to safeguard clan interests.[ii]

5.1.          Political Development

Political development is important to social science for the reason that it poses hard theoretical problems. Any discussion of development implicitly presupposes answers to two fundamental theoretical challenges: making the micro-macro connection between individuals and institutions in development, and providing normative justification of the sequence[iii]. Despite its importance, the concept of political development has long been in a state of confusion. The term came to political science from a sense that there must be a political analogue to the widely used concept of economic development (Eckstein, 1982).

In the case of Somaliland, more than 450,000 people in Somaliland   cast their votes in a multi-party election for district councils in 2002 which they were turned out again vote for a president in 2003. The elections, the first in this region since 1969, were a crucial part of the transformation of Somaliland’s post-war system of government, from a clan-based power-sharing system to a constitutional government based on multi-party democracy where political reconstruction has therefore largely been an internal affair. 

5.2.         Political Accountability

Economic and social development has become widely accepted in Somaliland since the post independent although yet to understand the factors that foster political accountability and good governance remains limited in most affairs. In historical matter, dependency of Somaliland government to the local sources of revenue provided those in control of economic assets with significant leverage over the government which they were able to use to demand the development of more accountable and representative political institutions though a process often referred to as ‘revenue bargaining. Connection between economic and political accountability also has potential implications for current Somaliland dependency over appropriate level of foreign assistance and concerns about high level consistently of foreign aid.

 

5.3.         Political Institutions:

The beginning of political development in Somaliland, it was first created and established a relatively unaccountable and unrepresentative government that lacked the resources necessary to assert authority. But the development was that they took a combination of a US-style presidency, British-style legislature, and traditional Somali clan leadership which led Somaliland to held presidential, parliamentary, and district level elections.

6.     Research Methodology:

Qualitative research has been given on concentration to find out answers to the research questioners that have been in the fieldwork. The data of this research has been collected through an interview of experienced academician individuals in the field, survey of secondary date was also be looked at to re-examine the range of sources including academic articles, and bibliographic databases.  Primary has been focuses on academicians, historical information, and normative rather than empirical analysis where internal and external have been concerted.

Interviews:

Interview with different people have been conducted in to this search both for interior academicians, normal people who have range of knowledge about Somaliland political development since its independent period to the present time. Business people were also being in the target to discover the required information.

Survey:

Talking about how to define Somaliland political development in historically so that it can be measured and tested in accordance with its principles, a survey has been conducted through written articles (Somaliland cyberspace) to use its range of information.

  Findings:

In the research findings, outcomes of 89% of the respondents in the first question of the research   said that Somaliland had grew politically in more focused on the domestic affairs while other 11% of the respondents alleged Somaliland did not politically developed since its independent period from 1991 to present time. Whereas 67%  from respondents on second question agreed that Somaliland constitution brought political change which in details added that Somaliland moved from traditional political systems to democratic political systems that led to adopt 5 political elections such that 2 for local council in 2002, and 2012 which politically being managed. For presidential election, Somaliland adopted 2 presidential elections since the adoption of its constitution that approved by Somaliland upper houses in 2001 which paves the way Somaliland to gain political reputations in the horn of Africa, and some part of the world.  

Table of the data:

SNO

1. Do you think that Somaliland politically grown from 1991 to present?

1.1.IF YES, How far

2. Do you think that Somaliland constitution had brought a change since 2003   

2.1. IF YES

IF NO

1

Yes

 

No

 

 

2

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

3

No

 

Yes

 

 

4

Yes

 

No

 

 

5

Yes

 

No

 

 

6

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

7

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

8

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

9

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

Figure 1.0

Figure 2.0

 

NO

Respondent

Frequency

Percent

1

Democratic elections, multi-party systems of government, talking to Somalia

4

45%

2

No more political achievements was made

2

22%

3

Somaliland achieved development stage, peace and security

1

11%

4

Somaliland politics is more reputable in the world

1

11%

5

Government institutions that execute operations have been established and reconstructed government mechanisms

1

11%

Table 2.0

Figure 3.0

Conclusions:

It’s clear that Somaliland made extend and significant political development since its independent as indicated in the results and findings from the research. Report shows that Somaliland enhanced its domestic’s politics which implication show impact  and development of the national constitution that prepared Somaliland to move from traditional political system to the democratic political system on the process of modernization theories. Reconstruction of its domestic politics, Somaliland different political elections were achieved where among 2 election concerned to the local council that reflected on its political development, other 2 were those considered to the presidential followed by the parliamentary election who have been elected by the people in 2005.  It’s noteworthy that Somaliland domestic political had left learns that other counties in the world in particular to Africa are to pursue for future political management.

In the sense that Somaliland has not been recognized by any other country but this research shows that Somaliland is having informal political ties with international community while, it created system of governance although findings did not mention about its accountability.

In the political economy, the wrapping up of the research touched on that Somaliland political economy has more focuses on its domestics trade and local investment that people engaged locally other than international investments that however reported absent due to reasons that laws to control and managed international investments remains undeveloped while efforts to create a centre of attention more from the international community remains high.

The conclusion of this research also identified that Somaliland political reputation on of transformed political administration in traditional political progress that were achieved but what it still lacked is that, Somaliland needs to concentrate more on its foreign political development although there are factors that hinders to achieve in extent yet, to invest time and the peace that it has can help Somaliland to achieve on its effort to make political advancement.

 

Reference:

[1] (Somaliland: Facing the Challenges of Free and Fair Elections, Social Research and Development Institute – SORA DI, Authors: Abdi Ahmed Nour, Dr. Adan Yusuf Abokor, Amina Mohamoud Warsame (Milgo),Dr. Axel Harneit-Sievers, Haroon Ahmed Yusuf, Mohamed Farah Hersi,Dr. Mohamed Osman Fadal, Sadia Musse Ahmed, Shukri Haji Bandere,Dr. Steve Kibble & Suad Ibrahim Abdi).

 

[1] Somaliland ‘home grown’ peacemaking and political reconstruction

Mohammed Hassan Ibrahim and Ulf Terlinden).

DEFINING POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT, CHAPTER 1: FIVE FUNDAMENTAL THEORETICAL CHALLENGES IN CONCEPTUALIZING POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT).

((Taxation, Political Accountability, and Foreign Aid: Lessons from Somaliland, Nicholas Eubank, March 26th, 2011, p. 6, 7, 8.).

 

(Taxation, Political Accountability, and Foreign Aid: Lessons from Somaliland, Nicholas Eubank, March 26th, 2011, p. 02, 03.

Somaliland cyberspace, Somaliland: Choosing Politics over Violence, Author(s): Mark Bradbury, Adan Yusuf Abokor, Haroon Ahmed Yusuf, and P 01, p 3,.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

   

[iii] (

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  1. Saed Moumin says:

    If the mass Somalilanders knew about the deep corruption Silaanyo State of Habr jeclo, they will feel shame about supporting against the candidate elect president Muse Bixi, the
    secret commandments of Silaanyo government: 1.Corruption is king in Somaliland
    economic 2. Power president Silaanyo is not only executive but from courts of
    law or to the administration of justice 3. President-Minister gangs May Steal
    from all Somalilanders 4.Ministers of Silaanyo Lie to whole country 5.Non-Kulmiye
    members are not politician 6. Non-Kulmiye members are not taking serious in the
    future of Somaliland 7.Use Deception and Dissimulation 8. Sacad Muuse and Ciise
    Muuse leaders are the worst betrayers of Habr Awal on Somaliland today 9. Somaliland
    Law have being abuse daily without population participation nor the justice
    10.Be careful of Habr Yonis are very knowledgeable of the Old tricks we are
    using and Ciise Muuse are very clever in politic manoeuvre. However, their parties
    are so weak it pre-dates the System of UDUB.

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